Shilpagupta4 Analytics, Marketing, Project Management Sat, 20 Jul 2013 18:00:26 +0000 en-US hourly 1 What is bigger – Digital Data or Big Data? Sat, 20 Jul 2013 18:00:26 +0000 Shilpa Gupta [...] ]]> Have you ever wondered which data, Digital or Big data is bigger? You might have guessed it right! As the name suggests, Big data is bigger than Digital data. Let us see how?

What are some of Big Data Types?

Big data includes structured, semi-structured, unstructured and multi structured data from various sources/channels. Structured data follows a predefined data model or a data format. Unstructured data is text heavy and has no format. Semi-structured data is a combination of structured and unstructured data. Multi-structured data includes a variety of data formats and types. Some of big data types are as follows with some examples for each type of big data.

  1. Digital Data (See below)
  2. Machine to Machine (M2M): RFID Tags (Radio frequency identification technologies, track movement of material across supply chain), Vehicle Telematics, Smart Meters, GPS
  3. Big transaction data: Health care claims, Utility Billing Records, Point of Sales Records
  4. Biometrics: Facial/body part recognition (Finger Printing, Voice Pattern, Handwriting)
  5. Human Generated: Call Centre agent notes, email, electronic medical records, paper documents

What are some of Digital Data Types?

Digital data includes data collected mainly through internet services.

  1. Display/Banner Ads data: This includes clickstream data and online advertising data.
  2. Website Data: This comprises of visitor profile data, weblogs and so on.
  3. Search Data: Search engines generate a lot of data from search advertising. This includes data from both SEO and SEM marketing campaigns.
  4. Social Media data is data collected using various social media sources such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, P Interest, Social Communities etc.
  5. Mobile data: Data generated through mobile phones/tablets etc.


Big data includes all online (digital data) marketing data, offline(traditional data) marketing data and several other data sets not occasionally used for marketing analytics. For example: Biometrics is not considered part of digital but it is one of big data types. Some companies are exploring to use biometrics data to integrate online and offline data sources. This integration does involve data governance privacy issues. We can give great actionable insights by integrating biometrics data with online data sources but we need to make sure we address data privacy issues.

Digital data is all subset of Big data. In other words, Big data types contains within them several Digital data types. Digital data is big part of Big data. Analyzing and measuring right big data for accurate business objectives is tremendously powerful and results in great ROI for various businesses around the world.

Please share your thoughts via comments below.

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Is your Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI) really sensitive? Tue, 22 May 2012 18:00:03 +0000 Himanshu Bansal [...] ]]> Sometime back, I visited Tata’s Service Station to get my car serviced. Feedback form was mandatory before service station would release the car. The form suggested to give rating from 1 to 10 on various parameters of the service. I gave score from 6 to 10 on various service parameters such as timeliness, facilities of the station, behavior of employees, workmanship etc. Service Advisor advised me that Tata expects a score of more than 8. Surprised? Yes, more than 8 out of 10 i.e. 9 or 10 only.

I gave scores the way Advisor wanted because other than timeliness service was good. I re-read the meanings of scores for each of 1 to 10. The ratings meant the following:

  • 1 to 6: Bad (Showed red embarassed smiley against this score)
  • 7: Average (Showed red embarassed smiley against this score)
  • 8: Industry Benchmark (Showed unhappy orange smiley against this score)
  • 9: Good (Showed a smiling smiley against this score)
  • 10: Exceptional (Showed green ecstatic smiley against this score)

Service Station expected customers to give 9 or 10 score on each of the service parameters. At that time I realized, the Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI) score targets that we (I work for a IT firm) have for our customers is 85% or more. The CSI for each parameter in car service station and IT company matched ditto.


I wondered, what is the purpose of these surveys? If companies gauge score on the range 9 to 10 out of 10 and then target their area of improvement on parameters that are getting scores of 9 or 10 then there is really nothing to improve; how does 9 differ from 10?

Taking this idea further, I believe companies have no data to improve and differentiate from competition. The current industry benchmark of 8 will become common occurrence and thus, today’s extra ordinary will become just average (everyone company will have the same score).


Companies will need to enhance these surveys so that they can hear customer’s voice. There can be two solutions to these 9 & 10 Score Surveys:

  1. Companies expand their scales as follows:
    1. Retain score 1 to 8 for ratings as it is i.e. 1-6 means Bad, 7 means Average and 8 means Industry Average.
    2. Expand the range 9-10 for Good score to 9-15. This additional scale will let customers rate the parameters and let companies choose the parameter that needs improvement.
  2. Mark each service parameter by two scales:
    1. Scale 1: Let customers choose a service by Bad, Average or Good. Bad and Average parameters need major improvement.
    2. Scale 2: For parameters that are marked Good, let customers rate those parameters on Scale 1 of 1 to 5. If companies are getting only Good rating then companies can choose the parameters among Good where they may outsmart the competition.

How does your organization gets your customer fill Service Surveys or calculates Customer Satisfaction Index? Is your scale sensitive enough to provide insightful information about areas to improve? Are you always insisting on getting CSI above 85% on all the parameters? Share your thoughts.

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Which of Tata or Maruti gives better after-sales service? Sun, 20 May 2012 09:00:36 +0000 Himanshu Bansal [...] ]]> I recently got my Tata Nano and later Maruti Swift Dzire serviced. I noticed a sharp contrast in the service of two major auto makers.

Experience of Servicing Tata Nano from Tata Motors

By the end of 2011, Tata Motors had sent a letter stating that starter motor for Tata Nano can be replaced free of cost at their service centre because the company has noticed a manufacturing defect. I was lazily holding onto that notice until one of the Tata Motors service representative called to remind me. The lady insisted me to setup an appointment so that motor can be replaced else after 15 days, customers will be charged for replacement. When I informed that I am short of time to get the service done, the representative offered to let their driver pick up the car and if required drop the car after the service is done.

On the set time, driver came to pick up the car. I chose to go with the driver to service station. At 11:00 AM, I was in the service centre. I had a few minor adjustments that needed to be done. I was told that the whole process would take 4-5 hours. By 7:00 PM service centre was ready with the car. At 7:00 PM, I heard the closing siren of the service centre. However, service representative offered me to take to test drive. After the drive, I suggested a couple of minor complaints and he willfully attended my complaints to my satisfaction.

Customer satisfaction score was mandatory for every service performed and advisor was probably expecting excellent score on service. However, I was unhappy with the service not because of quality of service but because service had taken around 9 hours instead of promised 4-5 hours. I gave rating of 9 or more on all parameters when service advisor insisted on it. However, I gave a rating of 7 on timeliness and 8 overall when Tata Motors called on phone next day.

The rating of 7 and 8 started a series of events. Service Centre in-charge for services called me whether my service was not done properly. Even Service Advisor called and asked how he may satisfy him if I am not happy with the service. Score of 7 or 8 was not acceptable to them and they really looked desperate to fix the problem. I realized that Service was done to my satisfaction except that it took longer than expected. I had forgotten that while it took so long, Service Advisor had worked overtime to mend my complaints. I had a firm belief after the service that feedback is taken very seriously in Tata Motors.

Experience of Servicing Swift Dzire from Maruti Suzuki

Instance 1 - Regular service

Last month, my Dzire completed its one month and I was already feeling some creaking noise and observing that car was giving a lot of vibrations when passing over pot holes on the road. I took Dzire to Moti Nagar service station, the location recommended by sales representative who sold me this car. I had informed that I was feeling lot of vibrations and the creaking noise and I was assured that they will be minor loosening of bolts; bolts will be tightened and noise and vibrations will disappear. The representative sold me the body coating package that included Teflon coating, anti rust coating etc. I entered around 10:00 AM and I was out of the service station by lunch time at around 1:30 PM.

After the end of service, I was asked pay for the coating package and consumables. I diligently paid and Maruti issued me a gate pass. At that time, I was looking for Service Advisor who was no where to be seen. On my way back home, I realized that creaking noise is still there and the vibration level has not changed a bit.

I returned to the service centre and asked for Service Advisor. This time, Service Advisor came with me for a test drive. We returned to service centre and he fixed the back seat which was lose and might be causing creaking sound. I was assured that vibrations are like that in Dzire and the level of vibration in new car may not sustain now (is a month old car not new?)

I was offered to go home and return if I notice the sound again. Creaking sound was still there although lot less frequent. I returned to service station and informed to the advisor. The advisor advised me to observe the car for a few days as it may take some time for seat to settle and the noise should disappear. I was not fully satisfied but I believed what I was told.

Instance 2 – Repair of bumper

A few days back my Dzire was hit from behind and I took the car to the same Moti Nagar service station. Three days later, I went to pick up my car in the evening. The car was dirty from outside. It had developed a few more nicks. The trunk (boot) that was not closing due to the accident still showed resistance in closing. I got the trunk lock adjusted although the adjustment is still not what I had in the new car (this is anyway just 1.5 month old car). I had to get those nicks touched up. My car was cleaned from outside and inside. I was not offered a test drive and I did not believe that test drive was required.

On my way back, I realized that the dash board panel (where odometer, fuel level indicators display) was hazy with oil marks. I tried to clean the display with my hands and the oil spread further to block the view completely. I noticed from inside rear view mirror that back glass showed similar oil marks and floor mat were put upside down. I could not help but remember the instance when service advisor had adjust the outside rear view mirror by hand when there was a joystick to adjust the rear view mirror (this could disrupt the setting).

I called the service advisor telling him that my car is still dirty. In response, he offered me to bring the car back to service station to get it washed. I was thinking, why couldn’t washing be already done.

Next day, when I thought of cleaning up my car, I found that the new duster that I had bought and I had put in the trunk was missing.

I should have given a really low rating for core service activities (creaking noise still there, vibrations still present, trunk does not close as smoothly as it used to be) and additional service activities (car was not clean). However, feedback form is not mandatory for Maruti.

Overall Comparison of Tata vs Maruti

  1. None of Tata or Maruti overcharged me for their service. At least I did not feel so.
  2. Tata took longer to service while Maruti was prompt in their service. Tata did not value much to promptness of service.
  3. Tata took the responsibility of the quality of their service. On the other hand Maruti does not care.
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15 Cost Heads in Software Development Company Tue, 27 Dec 2011 15:00:21 +0000 Himanshu Bansal [...] ]]> If you have thought of starting your own software development firm or director of PMO calculating costs for your programs, you must consider all kind of costs that may occur for performing benefit analysis of your program.

  1. Human resource cost for project staff and supporting staff (Finance, HR, Process, Quality Control/Assurance, Admin, Travel, Legal etc.)
    1. Salary, perks and retirement
    2. Recruitment expenses
    3. Training expenses
    4. Sub-Contractors Cost
    5. Staff Welfare – canteen, events etc.
    6. External Consultants
      1. Fees to outside agencies
      2. Lawyer/documentation fees
    7. Entertainment
  2. Product & Equipment Expenses
    1. Software
    2. Facility furniture
  3. Communication – Data Circuit
  4. Communication – Others
    1. Telephone expenses (office, mobile)
    2. Data cards
    3. Postage and telegram
  5. Depreciation of building and equipment
  6. Domestic travel
    1. Transportation cost (air fare, bus fare, train fare, taxi, rental car, insurance etc.)
    2. Hotel cost
    3. Food cost
  7. Electricity
  8. Facility Running Expenses – Others
    1. Cleaning
    2. Decoration
    3. Security
    4. Garbage disposal / recycling
    5. Printing and Stationary
  9. Marketing
    1. Advertising
    2. Event sponsorship
  10. Overseas Travel
    1. Airfare expenses
    2. Visa expenses
    3. Passport expenses
  11. Project Expenses
  12. Rent
    1. Office
    2. Staff accommodation
  13. Repairs & Maintenance
    1. Repair & maintenance of facility
    2. Repair & maintenance of machinery
    3. Repair & maintenance of software
  14. Research and development
  15. Others
    1. Bank charges
    2. Brokerage and commissions
    3. Insurance
    4. Periodicals and journals
    5. Consumable
    6. Exchange rate fluctuation
    7. Bank interest

Amounts of above cost factors will vary according to an organization and its accounting practices. However, we must consider or explicitly rule out the above costs for benefit realization estimates.

Do you agree or would you like to add any other cost?

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Why blog? Tue, 06 Dec 2011 15:00:17 +0000 Himanshu Bansal [...] ]]> Everyone knows blogging income sucks yet there are 156 million public blogs (Reference Blog on Wiki). Have you ever wondered what has made blogging so popular.

Advantages of blogging:

  1. Barometer of knowledge - What you write demonstrates your knowledge on the subject. The more you know, the better you can write. When I am short of topics to write, I encourage myself to learn new and more stuff. Blogging enhances your thought process and helps you to be more creative. When you read, write and share, you get more ideas and your knowledge increases.
  2. Opens more avenue - Blogging can help open other job, networking or business avenues because of the learning of blogging subject, demonstration of learning or just by thinking like an entrepreneur. The avenue reminds me of success stories of many famous bloggers at Technorati.
  3. Gives popularity - I was amazed to see my photo on google when I searched on my name. It was made possible because of my social presence and blogging.
  4. Extra source of income - Blogging cannot earn a living for most but it is still an additional source of income.

Disadvantages of blogging:

  1. Time consuming – It takes too much time to write, decorate and publish even a single blog post. It takes time to maintain the website.

Overall, I recommend blogging for all round growth. Do you recommend blogging or consider that outdated? Share your thoughts via comments.

Related readings:

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12 Social Media Facts Tue, 20 Sep 2011 14:00:13 +0000 Shilpa Gupta [...] ]]> Social Media has grown from postal service Persia in 550 BC to Wikipedia in 2001 to Twitter in 2006 and is continuously growing by different companies and individuals. An individual cannot imagine being in touch with friends without Social Media and companies cannot plan their marketing strategy without Social Media. Here are some quick facts about Social Media.

  1. Why do people participate in first place? Keeping up friendships, networking, social pressure, find site useful where people want to contribute, altruistic nature, natural nature to donate blood, creative impulse, show off work if you are not a professional and to entertain etc.
  2. Social Media is about
    1. Listening what customers are saying
    2. Talking with your customers
    3. Energizing your customers for word of mouth
    4. Supporting your customer base
    5. Embracing new ideas into product from customers
  3. Other than Facebook, Twitter, Foursquare, You Tube, social media also include widgets (gadgets) for branding, RSS feeds, support forums etc.
  4. Young people create a lot of content in Social Media so they overindex in Creation.
  5. Social media strategy for different brand and different target group should be different. Example: YouTube in US and Daily motion in France. Tools in different countries are different but underlying strategy is the same.
  6. For many brands more buzz means more sales and vice versa.
  7. Shouting marketing does not work anymore. Conversation and talking with customers does.  Social Media has changed the game.
  8. Ratings and reviews generate more purchases. It is another tactic for selling your product. More than 75 percent consumers depend on ratings to buy things.
  9. Social media support forums saves a lot of money for call centers.
  10. Crowd sourcing from customers: Creating communities to get ideas from customer such as create an ad, how to be a good banker, creating polls, not only this saves ad production cost but also help marketer understand consumer landscape.
  11. Many companies use internal wiki and social network for idea exchange and strategy. This should include top management with open environment for healthy discussion.
  12. Last but not the least, make sure social vendor give good analyst to monitor your social media study.

 Would you like to share some more facts? Jump in the conversation via comments below.

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Quick Guide to Demand Side Platform (DSP) Fri, 09 Sep 2011 14:00:52 +0000 Shilpa Gupta [...] ]]> Ever wondered what is Demand Side Platform? Media buyers are using DSPs as another platform to buy media which is different than other forms of buying Display media.

Current Media Buying Environment

  • Online Ad inventory (placements for ad online) is more abundant and ever increasing with more sites, blogs, social networks etc. This means there are multiple buying options for a brand for buying Ad Placements.
  • Options for buying Ad online:
    • Direct from Publishers
    • Ad Networks which handle inventory from multiple publishers.
    • Bid-Based exchanges through various pricing options such as cost per impression, cost per click or cost per action.
    • DSPs
    • Agency Trading Desk
    • Real Time Bidding (RTB)

    Definitions of all above can be found in Excellent detailed PPT for various kinds of Display Media Buy.

What is a DSP?

As this is a little complicated, I collected definitions through various sources to help us understand DSPs better.

  • A dedicated buy-side tool that helps media buyers aggregate, bid on, and optimize display inventory across exchanges and ad networks.
  • A developed technology that enables advertisers and agencies to use “real time bidding” to buy display ad space, and to optimize display ad campaigns, across multiple advertising exchanges, all in a single interface.
  • Real-time bidding platforms to buy highly targeted “audiences” – buying display and video ads on the fly to reach in-market consumers right when they’re researching products or are ready to make a purchase.
  • DSPs include companies who built their technology and services solely for “demand side” of the industry the agencies and advertisers.

What is the difference between DSPs and Online Ad Exchanges?

Ad exchanges and DSPs

Ad exchanges and DSPs

Online Ad Exchanges  DSPs 
Examples: Yahoo! bought Right Media in April, Google bought DoubleClick in May and Microsoft bought AdECN in August , all in 2007 Examples: Dataxu, Invite Media (acquired by Google in 2010), Turn, Mediamath, Xplusone
Enable bid-based ad “trades” between buyers and sellers on their platforms. In this case, media buyers have to use a different system to access each exchange. DSPs allow media buyers to buy from multiple biddable media sources through a single interface, which gives buyer access to more liquid inventory.
Buying from multiple exchanges is time consuming and inefficient from companies. Manage, optimize, and execute bid-based buys. DSPs also feature algorithmic optimization capabilities that dynamically alter bid prices based on performance data.
Ad Exchanges is a layer below DSP. DSP is a layer on top of AD exchanges. These companies can access inventory from multiple exchanges with no need to aggregate inventory through relationships with publishers.
Typical campaign buys from multiple ad exchange so it is difficult to achieve unique reach or optimal frequency. Reach and frequency can be better controlled using one interface.

Use of DSPs is constantly growing, but is still a small share in Overall Display Media Buying.

Percentage of DSP buy in Display Media Buy

Percentage of DSP buy in Display Media Buy

Other Good Reads and References on DSPs

Hope the article above helps. Please share via comments.

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10 Actions for a Project in Crisis Tue, 06 Sep 2011 14:00:44 +0000 Himanshu Bansal [...] ]]> Any project can run through a tough deadline (crisis) when project team has to work long hours and sacrifice holidays and weekends. Following actions can make those long hours less painful and more productive:On the deadline

  1. Communicate the crisis and include team to solve crisis. Every team member should be aware of the crisis that project is running through and what is the impact on project. The communication should not be a threat to team rather should try to win team’s support. Team should work to collectively win.
  2. Provide basic amenities to project team. Basic amenities include food, AC/Heating, seating arrangement, transportation, phone, security etc. Team should not struggle for basic amenities else they will lose focus.
  3. Let team work. Supervisors should not take over team member’s task because doing so will cause
    • Team will be motivated only if team performs its task. Taking away its task will only cause de-motivation
    • Snatching work puts team and supervisor in competitive spirit rather than collaborative spirit
    • Supervisors lose oversight and that may aggravate the crisis

    Helping team member perform one’s task is ok as long as that does not become micro-management or snatching of team member’s work.

  4. Keep the SMEs available or on standby. In crisis situation, SMEs may be urgently required any time. Furthermore, they may help alleviate the crisis.
  5. Be available. In crisis it is best for a Project Manager to be available for any eventuality. Virtual availability is equally effective.
  6. Relax some office rules such as dress code if possible.
  7. Be truthful. Telling a deadline tomorrow and not reviewing first draft today is a mistake that will cost credibility.
  8. Keep the mood cheerful. Following above points and understanding individual’s perspective and pain may keep the atmosphere light. Furthermore, communicate to team to take appropriate break to reduce burnout.
  9. Appreciate the effort of those who helped project come out crisis. You may reward team appropriately as per individual’s aspiration – compensatory off, desired role, certification/higher education approval etc. However, think with a grain of salt about those who intently brought the crisis to get appreciation by working overtime.
  10. Analyze what had gone wrong, capture that information in lessons learnt and try not to repeat such mistakes in future.
Would you like to share your experience on the actions that you or your manager took to alleviate crisis situation? How did those actions impact the outcome of your project?
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Digital Advertising Data Integration Fri, 02 Sep 2011 14:00:43 +0000 Shilpa Gupta [...] ]]> With multitude of digital data available for analysis on Internet, it is imperative to aggregate/ merge data to produce actionable insights. Let us understand digital data integration by two examples below.

Display Advertising

The difference between frontend and backend data for Display is explained in Table below.

Why data aggregation is required?

  1. Several times impressions are served by ADServer such as DART/ATLAS and action data on client website is captured by other vendor such as Webtrends, Omniture, Google Analytics etc. In case of Rich media the ads might be served by Pointroll or any other rich media vendor.
  2. As data is collected through different vendors, it is imperative to merge it properly to make actionable insights.
  3. The task is to merge frontend/backend data and segment data by Site, Placement, Creative, Geography, Day Parting etc. for Display Advertising.

How to set Digital Display Campaign for proper data integration?

  1. Have you ever noticed a Display visit URL? For example when I clicked on PRWeb AD on I noticed the following URL. Notice the parameters at the end of URL highlighted in green.
  2. If Display AD is tagged (trafficked) properly and we click on Display AD, URL will have parameters appended to its end that will capture all the campaign information.
  3. As AD appears on a website an impression tag fires, someone click on it, click tag fires and with the click tag a referring url is generated on brand website and action tag is fired which captures the referring url. Everytime a tag fires all data is stored in the database and using these parameters at the end, it is easy to find out which campaign, site, placement, creative the traffic came from and what those particular consumers did on the site.
  4. So when an AD appears frontend data is stored by the frontend vendor and backend is stored in database by backend vendor and data can be easily merged using same parameters in both databases (frontend &backend).

Paid Search Campaign

The difference between frontend and backend data for Paid Search is explained in Table below.

Why data aggregation is required?

  1. For Paid Search, often times the task is to merge frontend and backend and segment it by keyword, keyword type, adcopy etc.

How to set Paid Search Campaign for proper data integration?

  1. Notice a Paid Search visit URL. For example when I clicked on Paid Search Geico AD on I noticed the following URL. Notice the parameters at the end of URL highlighted in green.
  2. Again, notice the referring URL parameters, URL parameters can help track specific keyword, adcopy, keyword group etc.
  3. Similar to Display Advertising, when a Paid Search AD appears frontend data is stored by the frontend vendor (engines such as Google, Bing etc.) and backend is stored in database by backend vendor and data can be easily merged using same parameters in both databases (frontend and backend).

In sum, make sure all your campaigns are tagged properly in order to produce complete data and make actionable insights.

Do you agree? Do you know of better method or above is a standard procedure for your brand as well? Please share your thoughts via comments below.

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Leader of a Tribe Tue, 30 Aug 2011 14:00:38 +0000 Himanshu Bansal [...] ]]> Recently, I read Tribal Leadership from Dave, John and Halee, and I am really impressed with the philosophy of this book. This book tells that people fall in one of five stages of tribes.Tribal Leadership

  1. Stage 1 – Life sucks
  2. Stage 2 – My life sucks [other(s) is/are better than me]
  3. Stage 3 – I am great [you are not]
  4. Stage 4 – We are great [others are not]
  5. Stage 5 – We have to be better than ourselves

In this context, a tribe is a group of 5 to 50 people that works to achieve something. A bigger group comprises of tribe of tribes. People may be aligned or isolated and depending upon that achieves more or none. A person can move from one stage to the other in succession only without skipping any step. A person in Stage 1 is destructive while a person at Stage 5 is very constructive and his team can achieve the miraculous feet.

Stage 1 (Life sucks)

Type of people in this stage

  • There are very few people in society who belong to this category. If you regularly read developmental blogs such as this then you very unlikely belong to this stage.
  • These are the people who have been so much abused that they have lost all hopes. To them, everything they do is fair.
  • These people destroy themselves or others with no remorse.
  • People who are completely isolated from all good things in life may fall in this category. These people fall below “Love/belonging region” in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.

Life of the stage

  • This stage is highly unstable. People at this stage either get killed or see a ray of hope and move to Stage 2 (My life sucks but there are happy people).
  • I believe many a times, we stay in Stage 1 for a very short period of time and we don’t even realize.

Stage 2 (My life sucks)

Type of people in this stage

  • These are the people who believe that they are not getting what they should get.
  • These are the people who generally have to work with Stage 3 people.

Life of the stage

  • They either try hard to get into Stage 3 (I am great) or get pulled into depression/rage in Stage 1.
  • A person can stay in Stage 2 and Stage 3 for a very long time (sometimes even lifetime).

Stage 3 (I am great)

Type of people in this stage

  • They consider others “not great” and thus treat them like that.
  • These are the people who are experts or consider themselves to be expert. These people can be scholar, noble laureate or very successful as individual but they are very tough to work with.
  • They tend to organize their time very religiously because they believe that others are not smart and they have to work extra because of others.

Life of the stage

  • People who work with this stage people are generally sucked into Stage 2 (My life sucks [because of you]).
  • A person can stay in Stage 2 and Stage 3 for a very long time (sometimes even lifetime).

Stage 4 (We are great)

Type of people in this stage

  • Once a person elevates from “I am great” to “we are great” then that person can inspire. A group can achieve more than an individual can so these individuals are high achievers.
  • Leaders in such tribe do not snatch team’s achievement but takes moral responsibility for any team effort gone bad.
  • A leader of such a tribe can manage time very well because now the whole team works with almost zero supervision.
  • A group in this stage is very satisfied and people proudly show belongingness to the group.

Life of the stage

  • Motivation of the whole team is to stay ahead of the competition. With change in dynamics of competition, the group can rise to Stage 5 or drop to Stage 3.
  • The group is dependent upon values and beliefs and less upon the leader.
  • This stage is very dynamic and leader must push the group to surges of Stage 5 frequently.

Stage 5 (We have to do better than ourselves)

Type of people in this stage

  • People in this category are at the top of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. This group can achieve the most.
  • They are driven by the desire to perform for their own satisfaction. They want to be better than before and want to bring radical changes.

Life of the stage

  • This stage is very unstable because sooner or later competition and commercialization kicks in and people have to fall back to Stage 4.
  • A leader needs to bring surges of Stage 5 to maintain people at Stage 4 and Stage 5.
  • The group can rapidly degrade to lower stages with the change of leadership.

I have seen groups at Stage 4. Working at such stages is very satisfying and people give up their personal assets (time, money, job titles) to work in such groups. Overall, Tribal Leadership is an eye opener.

Which Stage is your project team in? Are you breeding lower stages individuals who are bringing down people from their higher stages? Do other groups play a role in changing stages of your team?

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